دانلود کتاب Industrial Combustion Pollution and Control

عنوان فارسی :

دانلود کتاب آلودگی و کنترل احتراق صنعتی

عنوان انگلیسی :

Industrial Combustion Pollution and Control

زبان : English

موضوع : Technique->Fuel Technology

نویسندگان : Boris S. Bokstein Mikhail I. Mendelev David J. Srolovitz

ناشر : CRC Press, Marcel Dekker

ISBN (شابک) : 9780198528036, 0198528035

تعداد صفحات : 890\890

سال نشر : 2003     ویرایش : 1

حجم : 16 MB       فرمت : pdf

قیمت : 20000 تومان

فهرست :



Table of contents :
Industrial Combustion Pollution and Control......Page 1
Preface......Page 4
Contents......Page 6
1.1 INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION......Page 7
Table of Contents......Page 0
1.2 POLLUTION EFFECTS......Page 9
1.2.1 Global Warming......Page 11
1.2.2 Acid Rain......Page 19
1.2.3 Ozone......Page 20
1.2.4 Visibility......Page 21
1.3 LITERATURE DISCUSSION......Page 23
1.3.1 Air Pollution Control......Page 24
1.3.2 Industrial Combustion......Page 25
1.4 COMBUSTION SYSTEM COMPONENTS......Page 26
1.4.2 Combustors......Page 27
1.5 COMBUSTION POLLUTANTS......Page 29
1.5.2 Unburned Combustibles......Page 31
1.5.3 Sulfur Oxides......Page 33
1.5.5 Noise and Vibration......Page 34
1.6 ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS......Page 35
1.6.2 Standards......Page 38
1.6.3 Variable Emission Regulations......Page 40
1.6.4 Sampling......Page 42
1.7.1 Metals Industries......Page 45
1.7.2 Minerals Industries......Page 46
1.7.3 Chemicals Processing......Page 47
1.7.4 Waste Incineration......Page 48
1.7.5 Other Industries......Page 49
1.8 POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGIES......Page 50
1.8.2 Process Modification......Page 53
1.8.3 Combustion Modification......Page 54
1.8.4 Post-Treatment......Page 55
1.8.5 Process Control......Page 56
1.8.6 Other......Page 57
REFERENCES......Page 62
2.1.1 Fuel......Page 67
2.1.2 Oxidizer......Page 72
2.1.3 Diluent......Page 77
2.1.4 Recirculation......Page 78
2.2.1 Fuel Properties......Page 81
2.2.3 Mixture Ratio......Page 82
2.2.4 Excess O2......Page 87
2.2.5 Operating Regimes......Page 90
2.3.1 Combustion Products......Page 91
2.3.2 Flame Temperature......Page 98
2.3.3 Available Heat......Page 105
2.3.4 Flue Gas Volume......Page 110
REFERENCES......Page 111
3.2 BURNERS......Page 113
3.2.1 Competing Priorities......Page 115
3.2.2 Design Factors......Page 116
3.2.3 General Burner Types......Page 122
3.3 COMBUSTORS......Page 130
3.3.1 Design Considerations......Page 131
3.3.2 General Classifications......Page 132
3.4 HEAT LOAD......Page 136
3.4.2 Moving Substrate......Page 137
3.5 HEAT RECOVERY DEVICES......Page 138
3.5.2 Regenerators......Page 139
REFERENCES......Page 141
4.1 COMBUSTION MODELING......Page 143
4.2 MODELING APPROACHES......Page 146
4.2.1 Fluid Dynamics......Page 147
4.2.2 Geometry......Page 149
4.2.3 Reaction Chemistry......Page 152
4.2.4 Radiation......Page 155
4.2.5 Time Dependence......Page 157
4.3 SIMPLIFIED MODELS......Page 158
4.4.1 Increasing Popularity of CFD......Page 160
4.4.2 Potential Problems of CFD......Page 161
4.4.3 Equations......Page 162
4.4.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions......Page 173
4.4.5 Discretization......Page 175
4.4.7 Model Validation......Page 179
4.5.1 Burner Modeling......Page 180
4.5.2 Combustor Modeling......Page 183
4.5.3 Combustion Pollution Modeling......Page 187
REFERENCES......Page 188
5.1 INTRODUCTION......Page 207
5.2 SOME STATISTICS......Page 208
5.3 SAMPLING......Page 213
5.3.1 Extractive Sampling......Page 220
5.3.2 In-Situ Sampling......Page 229
5.4.1 Exhaust Gas Flow......Page 231
5.4.2 Gas Composition......Page 237
5.4.3 Particulates......Page 241
5.5 SOURCE TESTING......Page 244
5.6 CONTINUOUS MONITORING......Page 247
5.7 SPOT CHECKING......Page 249
REFERENCES......Page 251
6.1 INTRODUCTION......Page 253
6.2 FORMATION MECHANISMS......Page 254
6.2.1 Thermal NOx......Page 255
6.2.2 Prompt NOx......Page 256
6.3.1 Oxidizer......Page 257
6.4 IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING NOX......Page 258
6.4.1 Oxidizer Composition......Page 259
6.4.2 Fuel Composition......Page 262
6.4.3 Mixture Ratio......Page 276
6.4.4 Combustion Product Temperature......Page 278
6.4.5 Oxidizer Temperature......Page 279
6.4.7 Gas Recirculation......Page 283
6.4.8 Flame Radiation......Page 285
6.5.2 Acid Rain......Page 286
6.5.3 Smog......Page 287
6.6.1 Unit Conversions......Page 288
6.6.2 Reporting Units......Page 294
6.7 MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES......Page 295
6.8.1 Pretreatment......Page 299
6.8.2 Process Modification......Page 305
6.8.3 Combustion Modification......Page 306
6.8.4 Post-Treatment......Page 315
REFERENCES......Page 326
7.2 CARBON MONOXIDE......Page 332
7.2.1 Formation Mechanisms......Page 333
7.2.2 Environmental Concerns......Page 334
7.2.3 Regulations......Page 337
7.2.4 Measurement Techniques......Page 338
7.3.1 Formation Mechanisms......Page 339
7.3.3 Regulations......Page 340
7.3.5 Abatement Strategies......Page 341
7.4 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS......Page 343
7.4.2 Environmental Concerns......Page 347
7.4.5 Abatement Strategies......Page 349
REFERENCES......Page 380
8.1 INTRODUCTION......Page 384
8.2 FORMATION MECHANISMS......Page 385
8.3 SOURCES......Page 386
8.4.1 Health Effects......Page 387
8.4.2 Acid Rain......Page 388
8.6 MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES......Page 389
8.7.1 Pretreatment......Page 390
8.7.3 Combustion Modification......Page 391
8.7.4 Post-Treatment......Page 392
REFERENCES......Page 405
9.1 INTRODUCTION......Page 408
9.2.2 Combustion-Generated Particles......Page 410
9.2.3 Solid Fuel Carryover......Page 411
9.3.2 Environmental Damage......Page 412
9.4 REGULATIONS......Page 413
9.5 MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES......Page 414
9.6 TREATMENT TECHNIQUES......Page 418
9.6.1 Pretreatment......Page 423
9.6.3 Combustion Modification......Page 425
9.6.4 Post-Treatment......Page 426
REFERENCES......Page 457
10.1 INTRODUCTION......Page 460
10.2 NOISE......Page 461
10.2.1 Basics......Page 462
10.2.2 Sources......Page 466
10.2.3 Environmental Concerns......Page 470
10.2.4 Regulations......Page 472
10.2.5 Measurement Techniques......Page 473
10.2.6 Abatement Strategies......Page 475
10.3 VIBRATION......Page 485
10.3.1 Sources......Page 486
10.3.2 Environmental Concerns......Page 488
10.3.3 Measurement Systems......Page 489
10.3.4 Abatement Strategies......Page 490
REFERENCES......Page 492
11.2 CARBON DIOXIDE......Page 496
11.2.2 Formation Mechanisms......Page 497
11.2.4 Regulations......Page 505
11.2.6 Control Strategies......Page 506
11.3.1 Formation Mechanisms......Page 512
11.3.4 Measurement Techniques......Page 513
11.3.5 Abatement Strategies......Page 514
11.4 DIOXINS AND FURANS......Page 516
11.4.1 Formation Mechanisms......Page 518
11.4.2 Sources......Page 520
11.4.3 Environmental Concerns......Page 521
11.4.5 Measurement Techniques......Page 522
REFERENCES......Page 523
12.2 BURNER TYPE......Page 530
12.2.1 Open-Flame Burners......Page 531
12.2.2 Radiant Burners......Page 539
12.3.1 Fuel Type......Page 540
12.3.2 Mixing Effects......Page 545
12.3.3 Oxidizer Effects......Page 561
12.3.4 Heat Recuperation......Page 565
REFERENCES......Page 570
13.1 INTRODUCTION......Page 572
13.2 FERROUS METAL PRODUCTION......Page 574
13.2.1 Electric Arc Furnace......Page 576
13.2.2 Smelting......Page 582
13.2.3 Ladle Preheating......Page 583
13.2.4 Casting......Page 585
13.2.5 Reheating......Page 586
13.2.6 Forging......Page 588
13.2.7 Emissions......Page 589
13.2.9 Emission Control Technologies......Page 590
13.3.1 Aluminum Production......Page 591
13.3.2 Copper, Brass, and Bronze Production......Page 611
13.3.3 Lead Production......Page 616
13.4 HEAT TREATING......Page 619
13.4.1 Standard Atmosphere......Page 620
13.4.2 Special Atmosphere......Page 621
REFERENCES......Page 624
14.2 GLASS......Page 630
14.2.1 Furnace Types......Page 634
14.2.2 Industry Segments......Page 641
14.2.3 Emissions......Page 647
14.2.5 Pollution Control Strategies......Page 649
14.3 CEMENT AND LIME......Page 653
14.3.1 Introduction......Page 654
14.3.2 Emissions......Page 658
14.3.3 Regulations......Page 659
14.3.4 Pollution Control Strategies......Page 660
14.4 BRICKS, REFRACTORIES, AND CERAMICS......Page 665
REFERENCES......Page 667
15.1 INTRODUCTION......Page 671
15.1.1 Environmental Concerns......Page 677
15.2.1 Process Heaters......Page 679
15.2.2 Reformers......Page 696
15.2.3 Flares......Page 699
15.3 EMISSIONS......Page 703
15.3.1 NOx Emissions......Page 705
15.3.2 SOx Emissions......Page 708
15.3.4 Flare Pollutants......Page 709
15.4 REGULATIONS......Page 721
15.5.1 Pretreatment......Page 722
15.5.2 Combustion Modifications......Page 725
15.5.3 Post-Treatment......Page 726
REFERENCES......Page 727
16.1 INTRODUCTION......Page 732
16.2 TERMINOLOGY......Page 735
16.3 WASTE MATERIALS......Page 737
16.4.1 Pollutants......Page 739
16.4.3 Regulations......Page 742
16.4.4 Pollution Control Strategies......Page 744
16.5 INCINERATION APPLICATIONS......Page 753
16.5.1 Municipal Waste Incineration......Page 754
16.5.2 Sludge Incinerators......Page 761
16.5.3 Mobile Incinerators......Page 764
16.5.4 Transportable Incinerators......Page 765
16.5.5 Fixed Hazardous Waste Incinerators......Page 766
REFERENCES......Page 767
17.1 PAPER INDUSTRY......Page 773
17.1.1 Black Liquor Recovery Boilers......Page 774
17.1.2 Lime Kiln......Page 776
17.1.3 Bark Boilers......Page 779
17.1.4 Paper Dryers......Page 782
17.2 PRINTING AND PUBLISHING......Page 787
17.3 TEXTILE MANUFACTURING......Page 788
REFERENCES......Page 790
18.2 PROCESS PARAMETERS......Page 792
18.2.2 Oxidizers......Page 793
18.2.4 Combustors......Page 794
18.2.6 Feed Materials......Page 795
18.3 REGULATIONS......Page 796
18.4.2 Combustion Modification......Page 797
18.4.3 Process Modifications......Page 799
18.4.4 Post-Treatment Equipment......Page 800
18.4.5 Controls......Page 809
18.5 RESEARCH NEEDS......Page 810
REFERENCES......Page 811
Glossary......Page 816
Appendix A: Reference Sources for Further Information......Page 818
Appendix B: Common Conversions......Page 822
Appendix C: Methods of Expressing Mixture Ratios for CH4, C3H8, and H2......Page 824
Appendix D: Flame Properties for CH4, C3H8,and H2, and CH4/H2 Blends......Page 830
E.1 FLUID DYNAMICS EQUATIONS IN CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES......Page 875
E.2 FLUID DYNAMICS EQUATIONS IN SPHERICAL COORDINATES......Page 876
Appendix F: Gas Properties......Page 877
Appendix G: EPA Sample Methods......Page 886
Appendix H: EPA Performance Specifications......Page 890





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