دانلود کتاب Environmental Forensics: Principles & Applications

عنوان فارسی :

دانلود کتاب پزشکی قانونی: اصول و کاربردها

عنوان انگلیسی :

Environmental Forensics: Principles & Applications

زبان : English

موضوع : Medicine->Trial

نویسندگان : Ekkehard Holzbecher

ناشر : CRC Press

ISBN (شابک) : 3540729364, 9783540729365

تعداد صفحات : 341\341

سال نشر : 1999     ویرایش : 1

حجم : 10 MB       فرمت : pdf

قیمت : 20000 تومان

فهرست :



Table of contents :
Environmental Forensics: Principles and Applications......Page 1
Preface......Page 3
The Author......Page 4
Acknowledgments......Page 5
Contents......Page 6
1.2 Chronology and Use of Chlorinated Solvents......Page 13
1.2.1 Trichloroethylene (TCE)......Page 18
1.2.2 Tetrachloroethylene (PCE, or Perchloroethylene)......Page 20
1.2.3 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA, or Methylchloroform)......Page 22
1.3.1 Terminology and Classification......Page 23
1.3.2 Chemical Structures and Properties......Page 24
1.3.3 Henry's Law Constant (KH)......Page 26
1.3.4 Liquid Density......Page 27
1.3.5 Solubility......Page 28
1.3.6 Viscosity......Page 29
1.3.8 Boiling Point and Latent Heat of Vaporization......Page 30
1.3.9 Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient (KOW)......Page 31
1.3.12 Biodegradation......Page 32
1.3.12.2 Aerobic Degradation......Page 34
1.4 Transport of Chlorinated Solvents through Soil......Page 35
1.5 Impact of Cosolvency on Transport through Soil......Page 37
1.6 Transport of Vapors through Soil......Page 38
1.7 Transport through the Capillary Fringe......Page 40
1.8 Transport in Groundwater......Page 42
1.8.2 Porosity (nE)......Page 43
1.8.3 Permeability (k) and Hydraulic Conductivity (K)......Page 44
1.8.4 Retardation......Page 46
1.8.5 Dispersivity......Page 49
1.8.6 Free Phase Solvent Transport in Groundwater......Page 50
1.8.7 Transport in Fractures......Page 51
1.8.8 Transport in Fractured Porous Media......Page 53
References......Page 54
2.2 Chemistry of Crude Oil......Page 61
2.3 Chemistry of Refined Products......Page 63
2.3.1 Gasoline......Page 65
2.3.2 Diesel......Page 69
2.4 Chemical Reactions in theVadose Zone......Page 71
2.4.2 Liquid Density......Page 73
2.4.3 Solubility......Page 74
2.4.4 Viscosity......Page 75
2.4.7 Retardation......Page 78
2.4.8 Biodegradation......Page 79
2.5 Overview of Transport through the Unsaturated (Vadose) Zone......Page 81
2.5.2 Cosolvation and Colloidal Transport......Page 82
2.5.3 Residual Saturation......Page 83
2.5.4 Vapor Phase Transport......Page 84
2.6 Hydrocarbon Interactions at the Capillary Fringe......Page 86
2.6.1 Hydrocarbon Solubilization from the Capillary Fringe into Groundwater......Page 88
2.7.1 Rate of Transport......Page 89
2.7.2 MTBE Transport in Groundwater......Page 90
2.7.3 Length of a Petroleum Hydrocarbon Plume......Page 92
2.7.4 Transport in Fractures......Page 93
References......Page 94
3.1 Introduction......Page 101
3.2 Geologic Characterization......Page 102
3.2.1 Boring Log Terminology......Page 103
3.3 Interpretation of Geologic Information......Page 108
3.4.1 Soil Collection for Chemical Analysis......Page 111
3.4.2 Subsampling and Sample Transfer......Page 113
3.4.3 Soil Composting......Page 115
3.5 Groundwater Characterization......Page 116
3.5.1 Monitoring Well Location......Page 118
3.5.2 Installation of Groundwater Monitoring Wells......Page 120
3.5.3 Sampling Plan......Page 122
3.5.4 Groundwater Purging......Page 124
3.5.5 Groundwater Sampling......Page 125
3.5.6 Sampling Equipment and Sequence......Page 126
3.5.7 Equipment Decontamination......Page 129
3.5.8 Sample Containers......Page 132
3.5.9 Sample Filtration, Preservation, and Holding Times......Page 133
3.5.10 Field Measurements......Page 138
3.6 Soil Vapors Survey......Page 141
3.6.1 Interpretation of Soil Vapor Data......Page 146
3.7 Analytical Methods......Page 149
3.7.1 Misidentification of Analytes......Page 152
3.7.2.1 Chain of Custody......Page 153
3.7.2.6 Field Logs......Page 156
3.7.2.7 Sample Receipt Checklist and/or Log......Page 157
3.7.2.10 Instrument Run Log......Page 158
3.7.3 Labratory Quality Control Samples......Page 159
References......Page 161
4.1 Introduction......Page 169
4.2 Aerial Photography......Page 170
4.3 Underground Storage Tank Corrosion Models......Page 173
4.4 Inventory Reconciliation......Page 177
4.5 Commercial Availability of a Chemical......Page 178
4.6 Chemicals and Formulations Unique to a Manufacturing Process or Activity......Page 180
4.6.1 Polychlorinated Biphenyls......Page 184
4.7 Petroleum Refinery Throughput Analysis......Page 187
4.8 Chemical Identification of Petroleum Hydrocarbons......Page 188
4.8.1 Analytical Strategy......Page 191
4.8.2 Proprietary Additives: Petroleum Hydrocarbons......Page 193
4.8.3 Anti-Knock Additives (Alkyl Leads)......Page 198
4.8.4 Lead Scavengers......Page 201
4.8.5 Oxygenates......Page 202
4.8.7 Petroleum Dyes......Page 207
4.9 Radioactive Isotope Dating......Page 209
4.9.1 Dating Groundwater with Isotopes......Page 210
4.9.3 Lead Isotope Analysis......Page 212
4.9.4 Lead Isotope Analysis for Gasoline Fingerprinting......Page 213
4.9.5 Isotope Analysis of Crude Oil and BTEX......Page 215
4.9.6 Isotope Analysis of Gas Samples......Page 217
4.9.7 Isotopic Analysis of Chlorinated Solvents......Page 219
4.10.1 Weathering and Biomarkers......Page 221
4.10.2 Biodegradation Models......Page 225
4.10.3 Pristine/Phytane Ratios......Page 227
4.10.4 BTEX Ratios......Page 228
4.10.5 Challenges to BTEX Ratio Methods......Page 231
4.11 Chemical Degradation Models: Chlorinated Solvents......Page 236
4.12 Rapid Optical Screening Tool Testing......Page 240
References......Page 242
5.2 Liquid Transport through Pavement......Page 256
5.3 Vapor Transport......Page 261
5.4 Containment Transport in Soil......Page 263
5.4.2 Colloidal Transport......Page 265
5.4.3 Preferential Pathways......Page 266
5.5 Containment Transport in Groundwater......Page 269
5.5.1 Types of Groundwater Models......Page 271
5.5.2 Selection of Boundary Conditions, Grids, and Mass Loading Rates......Page 274
5.5.3 Software Applicability......Page 275
5.6.1 Confirmation Models......Page 276
5.6.3 Hydrogeologic Variables......Page 277
5.6.4 Contaminate Properties......Page 279
5.6.5 Challenges to Reverse Models......Page 280
5.6.6 Challenges to Phase-Separate Reverse Models......Page 285
References......Page 286
6.2 Exaggerated Vertical and Horizontal Scales......Page 295
6.3 Selective Data Presentation......Page 296
6.4 Data Contouring......Page 304
6.4.2 Computer Contouring......Page 306
6.4.2.2 Kriging......Page 308
6.4.2.5 Polynomial Regression......Page 309
6.4.3 Color-Coded Data......Page 310
References......Page 312
A.1 Introduction......Page 318
A.2 Sample Calculation......Page 319
References......Page 322
B.2 Sample Calculation......Page 323
References......Page 324
Appendix C. Properties of Alcohol Oxygenates and Ether Oxygenates......Page 325
D.2 Derivation......Page 328
D.3 Conclusions......Page 330
References......Page 331
Appendix E. Chemical and Commercial Synonyms for Selected Chlorinated Solvents and Aromatic Hydrocarbons......Page 332
References......Page 335
Appendix F. Laboratory Terms and Definitions......Page 336


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