دانلود کتاب Atiyah's accidents, compensation and the law

عنوان فارسی :

دانلود کتاب حوادث آتیه، جبران خسارت و قانون

عنوان انگلیسی :

Atiyah's accidents, compensation and the law

زبان : English

موضوع : Jurisprudence->Law

نویسندگان : Peter Cane Patrick Atiyah

ناشر : Cambridge University Press

ISBN (شابک) : 0521689317, 9780521689311

تعداد صفحات : 551\551

سال نشر : 2006     ویرایش : 7th ed

حجم : 3 MB       فرمت : pdf

قیمت : 50000 تومان

فهرست :



Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Half-title......Page 3
Series-title......Page 4
Title......Page 7
Copyright......Page 8
Contents......Page 9
Preface......Page 16
List of abbreviations......Page 19
List of tables......Page 24
Table of legislation......Page 25
Table of cases......Page 30
Part 1 The issues in perspective......Page 39
1.1 Compensation for accidents......Page 41
1.2.1 The issue......Page 44
1.2.2 Society’s ‘responsibility’ for human causes......Page 46
1.2.3 Protecting reasonable expectations......Page 47
1.2.4 Egalitarianism and the problem of drawing the line......Page 48
1.3 Mixed systems in a mixed society......Page 49
1.4.1 Accidents causing personal injury or death......Page 56
1.4.2 Death and disability from other causes......Page 58
1.4.4 The effect of disability on income......Page 59
1.4.5 Distribution and sources of compensation......Page 60
1.4.6 The more serious and the less serious......Page 63
Part 2 The tort system in theory......Page 69
2.1 The conceptual basis of tort law......Page 71
2.2 Negligence as a basis of liability......Page 72
2.3 The fault principle......Page 73
2.4.1 A question of fact?......Page 74
2.4.2 The nature of negligence......Page 78
2.4.3 Probability of harm......Page 80
2.4.4 Likely magnitude of harm......Page 81
2.4.5 The value of the activity and the cost of the precautions needed to avoid harm......Page 83
2.4.6 The function of the negligence formula......Page 84
2.4.7 Foreseeability......Page 85
2.4.8 The objective standard of care......Page 86
2.4.9 Negligence in design and negligence in operation......Page 88
2.5 Conduct of the claimant......Page 91
2.5.1 Contributory negligence......Page 92
2.5.1.1 The difference between negligence and contributory negligence......Page 94
2.5.1.2 Contributory negligence and family cases......Page 95
2.5.1.3 The assessment of contributory negligence......Page 96
2.5.1.4 Contributory negligence and the fault system......Page 97
2.5.1.5 The usefulness of the doctrine......Page 98
2.5.2.1 Volenti and agreement not to sue......Page 99
2.5.2.2 Volenti and contributory negligence......Page 100
2.5.2.3 Volenti and standard of care......Page 102
2.5.3 Illegality......Page 103
3.1 The nature of the duty of care......Page 106
3.2.1 Common situations in which duties of care have been imposed......Page 108
3.2.2 The distinction between acts and omissions......Page 110
3.2.2.1 Undertakings......Page 115
3.2.2.2 Duties of physical protection......Page 116
3.2.2.3 Duties to control the conduct of others......Page 119
3.2.2.4 Control over property......Page 121
3.3 Nervous shock......Page 122
3.4 Family claims......Page 127
4.1 Fault liability and strict liability......Page 130
4.2 ‘Procedural’ devices......Page 132
4.3 Breach of statutory duty......Page 133
4.4 Contractual duties......Page 137
4.5 Rylands v. Fletcher, nuisance and animals......Page 138
4.6 Joint liability......Page 139
4.7 Vicarious liability......Page 140
4.8 Products liability......Page 141
4.9.1 Dangerous things and activities......Page 143
4.9.2 Railway accidents......Page 144
4.10.1 Vaccine damage......Page 145
4.10.3 Hepatitis C......Page 146
4.10.4 Variant CJD......Page 147
5.1 Introduction......Page 148
5.2.1 Proving causation......Page 149
5.2.2 Causing and increasing the risk of harm......Page 150
5.2.3 Omissions......Page 153
5.2.4 Multiple causal factors......Page 154
5.3.1 Legal causation......Page 156
5.3.2 Damage not within the risk......Page 163
5.3.3 Foreseeability again......Page 165
5.4 Conclusion......Page 167
6.1.1 Personal injury cases......Page 168
6.1.2 Fatal cases......Page 170
6.1.3 Variation of awards after trial......Page 173
6.1.4 Suitability of lump sums......Page 175
6.1.5.1 An argument against abandoning the lump-sum system......Page 177
6.1.5.2 Early proposals for alternatives......Page 178
6.1.5.3 Structured settlements......Page 179
6.1.5.4 Periodical payments......Page 180
6.2 Full compensation......Page 181
6.2.1 Interest......Page 183
6.2.2 Lost earnings and support......Page 184
6.2.3 Medical and other expenses......Page 188
6.3 Full compensation for lost ‘earnings’: is it justified?......Page 190
6.3.1 The earnings-related principle......Page 191
6.3.2 The hundred-per cent principle......Page 194
6.4 Full compensation: the commitment in practice......Page 195
6.5.1 Assessing intangible losses......Page 200
6.5.2 The tariff system......Page 204
6.5.3 Subjective factors......Page 208
6.5.4 Should damages be payable for intangible losses?......Page 209
6.7 Punitive damages......Page 211
7.1 The compensation payable bears no relation to the degree of fault......Page 213
7.2 The compensation bears no relation to the means of the tortfeasor......Page 215
7.3.1 Collective liability......Page 217
7.3.2 The objective definition of fault......Page 218
7.3.3 Moral culpability without legal liability......Page 220
7.4 The fault principle pays little attention to the conduct or needs of the victim......Page 221
7.5 Justice may require payment of compensation without fault......Page 223
7.6 It is often difficult to adjudicate allegations of fault......Page 225
7.7 The fault principle contributes to a culture of blaming and discourages people from taking responsibility for their own lives......Page 230
Part 3 The tort system in operation......Page 237
8.1.1 Cases reaching trial......Page 239
8.1.3 Actions commenced......Page 241
8.1.4 All tort claims......Page 242
8.2.1 Some research findings......Page 244
8.2.2 Alternative remedies......Page 245
8.2.3 Claims consciousness......Page 247
8.3.1 Road accidents......Page 252
8.3.2 Industrial injuries and illnesses......Page 254
8.3.4 Medical injuries......Page 257
8.3.5 Group claims......Page 259
9.2 Individuals as tort defendants......Page 260
9.3 Employers and corporations as tort defendants......Page 266
9.4 Insurers......Page 271
9.5 The nature of liability insurance......Page 272
9.6 Some problems of liability insurance......Page 277
9.7 First-party insurance for the benefit of others......Page 282
9.8.1 Statutory provisions......Page 283
9.8.2 The impact of insurance on the common law......Page 286
9.8.2.1 Effect of insurance in the particular case......Page 287
9.8.2.2 Possible influence of practice of insurance on the common law......Page 288
9.8.2.3 Limited effect of practice of insurance......Page 291
9.9 The Motor Insurers’ Bureau......Page 294
10.1 The importance of settlements......Page 298
10.2 Obtaining legal assistance and financing tort claims......Page 299
10.3 The course of negotiations......Page 306
10.3.1 Individual claims......Page 307
10.3.2 Group claims......Page 312
10.4 When negotiations break down......Page 316
10.5 The time taken to achieve a settlement......Page 319
10.6 The amount of compensation......Page 322
Part 4 Other compensation systems......Page 328
11.1 Types of first-party insurance......Page 329
11.2 First-party insurance compared with tort liability......Page 333
12.1 Tort claims......Page 338
12.2 Compensation orders......Page 339
12.3 Other sources of compensation......Page 341
12.4.1 Justifications for the Scheme......Page 342
12.4.2 The scope of the Scheme......Page 347
12.4.2.1 Crime of violence......Page 348
12.4.2.2 Accidental injuries......Page 352
12.4.2.3 Exclusions......Page 353
12.4.3.1 Mental distress and nervous shock......Page 354
12.4.3.2 Conduct of the claimant......Page 355
12.4.3.3 Assessment of compensation......Page 357
12.4.4 Administration......Page 362
12.4.5 Claims consciousness......Page 364
13.1.1 Workers’ compensation......Page 366
13.1.2 National insurance......Page 368
13.2 The Beveridge report and the 1946 Acts......Page 369
13.3 Developments since 1946......Page 371
13.4.1 The scope of the system......Page 376
13.4.2 Accidents and diseases......Page 378
13.4.3 Benefits......Page 380
13.4.3.1 Short-term incapacity......Page 381
13.4.3.2 Long-term incapacity......Page 382
13.4.3.3 Benefits for bereavement......Page 388
13.4.4 Administration119......Page 389
13.5 Non-work-related disablement......Page 393
13.6 Preferences within state provision for the disabled......Page 394
13.7.1 Benefits......Page 396
13.8 Fraud and abuse......Page 398
14.1 The taxation system......Page 401
14.2 Social services......Page 403
14.2.1 Employment......Page 404
14.2.2 Mobility......Page 407
14.2.3 Housing and residential accommodation......Page 408
14.2.4 Other social services......Page 409
14.3 Conclusion......Page 410
Part 5 The overall picture......Page 413
15.1 The concept of over-compensation......Page 415
15.2 The choice of compensation system......Page 416
15.3 Subrogation and recoupment......Page 418
15.4.1 General principles......Page 423
15.4.2 Tort damages and sick pay......Page 425
15.4.3 Tort damages and personal insurance......Page 426
15.4.4 Tort damages and charitable payments......Page 427
15.4.5 Tort damages and social security benefits......Page 428
15.5 Criminal injuries compensation......Page 432
16.1 The cost of tort compensation......Page 433
16.2.1 The cost of social services......Page 440
16.2.2 The cost of the social security system......Page 441
16.2.4 Costs in perspective......Page 443
16.3 The cost of criminal injuries compensation......Page 444
17.1.1 Some preliminary questions......Page 446
17.1.2.2 Redistributive compensation......Page 449
17.1.2.3 Equivalent compensation......Page 450
17.1.2.4 Compensation as substitute and solace......Page 451
17.1.3 Compensation and compensation systems......Page 452
17.2.1 What should be distributed?......Page 453
17.2.2 How should it be distributed?......Page 454
17.3 The allocation of risks......Page 456
17.4 Punishment......Page 457
17.5 Corrective justice......Page 459
17.6 Vindication or satisfaction......Page 460
17.7 Deterrence and prevention......Page 462
17.7.1.1 Causing injury to others......Page 463
17.7.1.2 Avoiding injury to oneself......Page 470
17.7.2.1 Encouraging or requiring loss prevention measures......Page 471
17.7.2.2 Risk-related premiums and similar techniques......Page 473
17.8.1 The basic idea......Page 477
17.8.3 Allocation of costs to activities......Page 480
17.8.4 Responsiveness to price mechanism......Page 484
17.8.6.1 The tort system......Page 486
17.8.6.3 First-party insurance......Page 490
17.8.7 An assessment of the value of the general-deterrence approach......Page 491
17.8.8 Conclusions about general deterrence......Page 495
Part 6 The future......Page 497
18.1 Where we are now and how we got here......Page 499
18.2.1 Strict liability or no-fault?......Page 505
18.2.2 Limited or comprehensive reform?......Page 507
18.2.3 Preferential treatment......Page 510
18.2.4 Assessment of compensation......Page 512
18.2.5 Funding......Page 515
18.2.6 Goals of the system......Page 517
18.3.1 Road accident schemes......Page 522
18.3.2 Other schemes......Page 525
18.4.1 A social welfare solution......Page 526
18.4.2 A private insurance solution......Page 531
18.5 Damage to property......Page 533
18.6 The role of the insurance industry and the legal profession......Page 534
Index......Page 537





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