دانلود کتاب Psychology (6th Ed.)

عنوان فارسی :

دانلود کتاب روانشناسی (چاپ ششم)

عنوان انگلیسی :

Psychology (6th Ed.)

زبان : English

موضوع : Psychology

نویسندگان : Robin M. Kowalski Drew Westen

ناشر : Wiley

ISBN (شابک) : 0470646446, 9780470646441

تعداد صفحات : 863\863

سال نشر : 2010     ویرایش : 6th

حجم : 37 MB       فرمت : pdf

قیمت : 20000 تومان

فهرست :



Table of contents :
Cover Page......Page 1
Title Page......Page 5
Copyright Page......Page 6
PREFACE......Page 7
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS......Page 14
CONTENTS IN BRIEF......Page 17
CONTENTS......Page 18
ABOUT THE AUTHORS......Page 24
CHAPTER 1 PSYCHOLOGY: THE STUDY OF MENTAL PROCESSES AND BEHAVIOR......Page 25
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: THE BLUE EYES HAVE IT!......Page 28
The Boundary with Biology......Page 30
The Boundary with Culture......Page 31
From Philosophy to Psychology......Page 33
PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHOLOGY......Page 36
The Psychodynamic Perspective......Page 37
The Behaviorist Perspective......Page 39
The Cognitive Perspective......Page 41
The Evolutionary Perspective......Page 44
PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: MENTAL HEALTH, HOPE, AND OPTIMISM......Page 49
COMMENTARY: MAKING SENSE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES......Page 50
THE BIG PICTURE QUESTIONS......Page 52
CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY......Page 55
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH......Page 57
Theoretical Framework......Page 58
FOCUS ON METHODOLOGY: GETTING RESEARCH IDEAS......Page 59
Generalizability from a Sample......Page 60
Objective Measurement......Page 61
PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: THE MEANING BEHIND THE MESSAGE......Page 63
Case Study Methods......Page 66
Naturalistic Observation......Page 67
Survey Research......Page 68
FOCUS ON METHODOLOGY: WHAT TO DO WITH DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH......Page 69
The Logic of Experimentation......Page 71
Steps in Conducting an Experiment......Page 72
Limitations of Experimental Research......Page 75
FOCUS ON METHODOLOGY: TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS—INFERENTIAL STATISTICS......Page 76
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH......Page 77
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: THE SHOCKING RESULTS......Page 80
HOW TO EVALUATE A STUDY CRITICALLY......Page 82
ONE STEP FURTHER: ETHICAL QUESTIONS COME IN SHADES OF GRAY......Page 84
CHAPTER 3 BIOLOGICAL BASES OF MENTAL LIFE AND BEHAVIOR......Page 87
Anatomy of a Neuron......Page 89
Firing of a Neuron......Page 91
Transmission of Information between Cells......Page 93
THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM......Page 97
The Autonomic Nervous System......Page 98
PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: NEUROMARKETING......Page 102
The Spinal Cord......Page 103
The Hindbrain......Page 105
The Subcortical Forebrain......Page 106
The Cerebral Cortex......Page 109
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: THINKING WITH TWO MINDS?......Page 114
PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: HAPPINESS......Page 118
The Influence of Genetics on Psychological Functioning......Page 120
Behavioral Genetics......Page 121
Evolution......Page 123
Evolution of the Central Nervous System......Page 124
THE FUTURE: GENETIC ENGINEERING......Page 127
CHAPTER 4 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION......Page 131
BASIC PRINCIPLES......Page 133
SENSING THE ENVIRONMENT......Page 134
Absolute Thresholds......Page 135
Difference Thresholds......Page 136
Sensory Adaptation......Page 138
PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY......Page 139
The Nature of Light......Page 140
The Eye......Page 141
Neural Pathways......Page 146
PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: RESILIENCE......Page 149
Perceiving in Color......Page 150
The Nature of Sound......Page 153
The Ear......Page 155
Neural Pathways......Page 158
Smell......Page 159
Taste......Page 160
Skin Senses......Page 161
Proprioceptive Senses......Page 165
Organizing Sensory Experience......Page 166
Interpreting Sensory Experience......Page 176
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: CHECKERBOARDS, CLIFFS, BABIES, AND GOATS......Page 177
CHAPTER 5 LEARNING......Page 186
Pavlov’s Model......Page 188
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: CONDITIONED EMOTIONAL RESPONSES AND LITTLE ALBERT......Page 190
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination......Page 192
Factors Affecting Classical Conditioning......Page 193
What Do Organisms Learn in Classical Conditioning?......Page 196
OPERANT CONDITIONING......Page 197
Reinforcement......Page 198
Punishment......Page 200
Operant Conditioning of Complex Behaviors......Page 202
ONE STEP FURTHER: WHY ARE REINFORCERS REINFORCING?......Page 208
COGNITIVE–SOCIAL THEORY......Page 210
Learning and Cognition......Page 211
PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: OUTLIERS......Page 214
Social Learning......Page 215
CHAPTER 6 MEMORY......Page 219
Mental Representations......Page 221
Information Processing: An Evolving Model......Page 222
WORKING MEMORY......Page 226
Visual and Verbal Storage......Page 227
The Relation between Working Memory and Long-Term Memory......Page 228
Declarative and Procedural Memory......Page 230
Explicit and Implicit Memory......Page 231
Everyday Memory......Page 235
Encoding......Page 236
Mnemonic Devices......Page 239
Networks of Association......Page 240
Schemas......Page 243
REMEMBERING, MISREMEMBERING, AND FORGETTING......Page 244
How Long Is Long-Term Memory?......Page 245
PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY......Page 246
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY......Page 248
Why Do People Forget?......Page 250
COMMENTARY: REPRESSED MEMORIES OF SEXUAL ABUSE......Page 252
CHAPTER 7 THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE......Page 256
Manipulating Mental Representations......Page 258
Concepts and Categories......Page 259
Reasoning......Page 264
Problem Solving......Page 267
Decision Making......Page 269
How Rational Are We?......Page 271
Implicit Cognition......Page 273
Emotion, Motivation, and Decision Making......Page 274
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: COUNTERFACTUALS AND “IF ONLY . . .” THINKING......Page 275
Connectionism......Page 277
Language and Thought......Page 282
Transforming Sounds and Symbols into Meaning......Page 283
The Use of Language in Everyday Life......Page 286
PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: TINY TALKERS......Page 287
ONE STEP FURTHER: IS LANGUAGE DISTINCTLY HUMAN?......Page 289
CHAPTER 8 INTELLIGENCE......Page 293
Intelligence Is Multifaceted, Functional, and Culturally Defined......Page 295
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: INTELLIGENCE IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE......Page 296
Binet’s Scale......Page 298
Intelligence Testing Crosses the Atlantic......Page 299
ONE STEP FURTHER: THE EXTREMES OF INTELLIGENCE......Page 302
PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: WISDOM......Page 304
Validity and Reliability of IQ Tests......Page 307
The Psychometric Approach......Page 309
The Information-Processing Approach......Page 311
A Theory of Multiple Intelligences......Page 313
Individual Differences in IQ......Page 314
Group Differences: Race and Intelligence......Page 317
COMMENTARY: THE SCIENCE AND POLITICS OF INTELLIGENCE......Page 319
CHAPTER 9 CONSCIOUSNESS......Page 322
Functions of Consciousness......Page 324
Consciousness and Attention......Page 325
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: MINDLESSNESS......Page 327
PERSPECTIVES ON CONSCIOUSNESS......Page 328
The Cognitive Unconscious......Page 329
PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: FLOW......Page 333
The Nature and Evolution of Sleep......Page 337
Stages of Sleep......Page 340
Three Views of Dreaming......Page 342
Hypnosis......Page 345
ONE STEP FURTHER: IS HYPNOSIS REAL?......Page 346
Drug-Induced States of Consciousness......Page 347
CHAPTER 10 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION......Page 354
Psychodynamic Perspective......Page 356
Behaviorist Perspective......Page 358
PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY......Page 359
Cognitive Perspective......Page 360
PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: SELF-EFFICACY......Page 361
Evolutionary Perspective......Page 365
Applying the Perspectives on Motivation......Page 368
EATING......Page 370
Homeostasis......Page 371
What Turns Hunger On?......Page 372
Obesity......Page 374
The Sexual Response Cycle......Page 376
Sexual Orientation......Page 379
PSYCHOSOCIAL MOTIVES......Page 381
Achievement and Other Agency Motives......Page 382
EMOTION......Page 385
Physiological Components......Page 386
Subjective Experience......Page 387
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: WHAT A LOAD OFF! HEALTH EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL DISCLOSURE......Page 388
Emotional Expression......Page 391
A Taxonomy of Emotions......Page 394
Emotion Regulation......Page 399
Perspectives on Emotion......Page 400
CHAPTER 11 HEALTH, STRESS, AND COPING......Page 407
History of Health Psychology......Page 409
Theories of Health Behavior......Page 412
Health-Compromising Behaviors......Page 415
ONE STEP FURTHER: SELF-PRESENTATION AND HEALTH......Page 424
PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: TEEN TEXTING WHILE DRIVING......Page 433
Barriers to Health Promotion......Page 434
Stress as a Psychobiological Process......Page 440
Stress as a Transactional Process......Page 441
Sources of Stress......Page 442
Stress and Health......Page 445
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: CHOICE AND RESPONSIBILITY TO HELP YOU AGE......Page 446
COPING......Page 451
Coping Mechanisms......Page 452
Social Support......Page 454
THE FUTURE OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY......Page 455
CHAPTER 12 PERSONALITY......Page 459
Freud’s Models......Page 461
Object Relations Theories......Page 468
ONE STEP FURTHER: ASSESSING UNCONSCIOUS PATTERNS......Page 469
Contributions and Limitations of Psychodynamic Theories......Page 472
COGNITIVE–SOCIAL THEORIES......Page 473
Encoding and Personal Relevance......Page 474
Expectancies and Competences......Page 475
Self-Regulation......Page 476
Contributions and Limitations of Cognitive–Social Theories......Page 477
Eysenck’s Theory......Page 479
PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: COMPASSION AND SELF-COMPASSION......Page 480
The Five-Factor Model......Page 483
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: HE’S GOT THE PERSONALITY OF A TURNIP!......Page 485
Is Personality Consistent?......Page 487
Contributions and Limitations of Trait Theories......Page 489
HUMANISTIC THEORIES......Page 490
Existential Approaches to Personality......Page 491
Contributions and Limitations of Humanistic Theories......Page 493
GENETICS AND PERSONALITY......Page 494
Linking Personality and Culture......Page 496
CHAPTER 13 LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT......Page 501
The Importance of Early Experience......Page 503
Stages or Continuous Change?......Page 504
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ATTACHMENT......Page 505
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: MOTHERLY LOVE......Page 506
Implications of Attachment for Later Development......Page 509
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development......Page 512
Development from Adolescence through Old Age......Page 515
Prenatal Development......Page 518
PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: PROGERIA......Page 519
Infancy......Page 520
Childhood and Adolescence......Page 521
Adulthood and Aging......Page 522
Perceptual and Cognitive Development in Infancy......Page 524
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development......Page 527
Information-Processing Approach to Cognitive Development......Page 533
Integrative Theories of Cognitive Development......Page 534
Cognitive Changes Associated with Aging......Page 536
Aging and “Senility”......Page 539
A Critical Period for Language Development?......Page 540
What Infants Know about Language......Page 541
From Babbling to Bantering......Page 542
The Role of Cognition......Page 544
The Role of Emotion......Page 548
COMMENTARY: MAKING SENSE OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT......Page 549
The Nature of Development......Page 552
CHAPTER 14 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS......Page 555
Culture and Psychopathology......Page 557
Is Mental Illness Nothing but a Cultural Construction?......Page 558
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: A CASE OF MISDIAGNOSIS?......Page 559
Psychodynamic Perspective......Page 561
Cognitive–Behavioral Perspective......Page 563
Biological Approach......Page 564
Systems Approach......Page 566
Evolutionary Perspective......Page 567
DESCRIPTIVE DIAGNOSIS: DSM-IV AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL SYNDROMES......Page 568
DSM-IV......Page 569
Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence......Page 571
Substance-Related Disorders......Page 572
Schizophrenia......Page 575
Mood Disorders......Page 580
PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: COURAGE......Page 585
Anxiety Disorders......Page 587
Eating Disorders......Page 591
Dissociative Disorders......Page 592
Personality Disorders......Page 593
ONE STEP FURTHER: ARE MENTAL DISORDERS REALLY DISTINCT?......Page 596
CHAPTER 15 TREATMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS......Page 599
Therapeutic Techniques......Page 602
Varieties of Psychodynamic Therapy......Page 604
Classical Conditioning Techniques......Page 606
Operant Conditioning Techniques......Page 609
Modeling and Skills Training......Page 610
Cognitive Therapy......Page 611
PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: PET THERAPY......Page 612
Humanistic Therapies......Page 613
Family Therapies......Page 615
PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THERAPY’S CONTRIBUTION TO MEANING MAKING AND PURPOSEFUL LIVING......Page 617
ONE STEP FURTHER: PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION......Page 619
BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS......Page 621
Antipsychotic Medications......Page 623
Antidepressant and Mood-Stabilizing Medications......Page 624
Antianxiety Medications......Page 625
Electroconvulsive Therapy and Psychosurgery......Page 626
Pharmacotherapy......Page 627
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: SOME THERAPY IS BETTER THAN NO THERAPY......Page 628
CHAPTER 16 SOCIAL COGNITION......Page 635
SOCIAL COGNITION......Page 637
Perceiving Other People......Page 638
Stereotypes and Prejudice......Page 640
PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: RAPID COGNITION......Page 643
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: EAGLES, RATTLERS, AND THE ROBBER’S CAVE......Page 647
Attribution......Page 649
PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: FORGIVENESS......Page 651
Biases in Social Information Processing......Page 654
The Nature of Attitudes......Page 657
Attitudes and Behavior......Page 661
Persuasion......Page 662
Cognitive Dissonance......Page 665
THE SELF......Page 668
Self-Esteem......Page 669
Self-Presentation......Page 671
CHAPTER 17 INTERPERSONAL PROCESSES......Page 677
PROFILES IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: GRATITUDE......Page 680
Factors Leading to Interpersonal Attraction......Page 682
Love......Page 685
The Dark Side of Relationships......Page 690
PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK: MAKING RELATIONSHIPS WORK......Page 691
Theories of Altruism......Page 693
Bystander Intervention......Page 695
AGGRESSION......Page 697
Violence and Culture......Page 698
The Roots of Violence......Page 699
SOCIAL INFLUENCE......Page 706
Obedience......Page 707
Conformity......Page 708
Group Processes......Page 710
RESEARCH IN DEPTH: ZIMBARDO’S PRISON STUDY......Page 711
Everyday Social Influence......Page 716
GLOSSARY......Page 721
ANSWERS......Page 739
REFERENCES......Page 743
PHOTO CREDITS......Page 831
TEXT AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS......Page 835
NAME INDEX......Page 841
SUBJECT INDEX......Page 851





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