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دانلود کتاب The Britannica Guide to Theories and Ideas That Changed the Modern World

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دانلود کتاب راهنمای Britannica برای نظریه ها و ایده هایی که دنیای مدرن را تغییر داده است

عنوان انگلیسی :

The Britannica Guide to Theories and Ideas That Changed the Modern World

زبان : English

موضوع : Education->Encyclopedia

نویسندگان : Kathleen Kuiper

ناشر : Rosen Education Service

ISBN (شابک) : 1615300295, 9781615300297

تعداد صفحات : 384\384

سال نشر : 2009     ویرایش : 1

حجم : 4 MB       فرمت : pdf

قیمت : 28000 تومان

فهرست :



Table of contents :
Title......Page 3
Copyright......Page 4
CONTENTS......Page 5
Introduction......Page 12
THE ORIGIN OF LIFE......Page 21
THE DEATH OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION......Page 22
THE ORIGIN OF PRIMORDIAL LIFE......Page 23
CELL THEORY......Page 25
THE PROBLEM OF THE ORIGIN OF CELLS......Page 28
THE PROTOPLASM CONCEPT......Page 31
THE CONTRIBUTION OF OTHER SCIENCES......Page 32
GERM THEORY......Page 35
DISCOVERIES IN CLINICAL MEDICINE AND ANESTHESIA......Page 37
ADVANCES AT THE END OF THE CENTURY......Page 38
GENETICS......Page 40
ANCIENT THEORIES OF PANGENESIS AND BLOOD IN HEREDITY......Page 41
PREFORMATION AND NATURAL SELECTION......Page 43
THE WORK OF MENDEL......Page 44
HOW THE GENE IDEA BECAME REALITY......Page 45
THE DISCOVERY OF LINKED GENES......Page 46
DNA AND THE GENETIC CODE......Page 47
RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY AND THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION......Page 49
EVOLUTION......Page 51
THE WORK OF CHARLES DARWIN......Page 52
THE DARWINIAN AFTERMATH......Page 54
THE SYNTHETIC THEORY......Page 56
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EARTH SCIENCES......Page 57
ECOLOGY......Page 60
ARABIC NUMERALS......Page 65
THE PRECALCULUS PERIOD......Page 67
NEWTON AND LEIBNIZ......Page 70
THE ATOMIC THEORY......Page 74
THE ROOTS OF ASTRONOMY......Page 77
A PREPONDERANCE OF THEORIES......Page 80
GRAVITATIONAL THEORY......Page 84
SPECIAL RELATIVITY......Page 87
LIGHT AND THE ETHER......Page 88
STARTING POINTS AND POSTULATES......Page 90
RELATIVISTIC SPACE AND TIME......Page 91
COSMIC SPEED LIMIT......Page 94
GENERAL RELATIVITY......Page 96
PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE......Page 97
CURVED SPACE-TIME AND GEOMETRIC GRAVITATION......Page 99
PLANCK'S RADIATION LAW......Page 100
EINSTEIN AND THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT......Page 101
BOHR'S THEORY OF THE ATOM......Page 102
SCATTERING OF X-RAYS......Page 104
BROGLIE'S WAVE HYPOTHESIS......Page 105
THE EXPANDING UNIVERSE: THE BIG BANG THEORY......Page 108
THE EVOLUTION OF STARS AND THE FORMATION OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS......Page 111
SOLAR-SYSTEM ASTRONOMY......Page 113
PLATE TECTONICS......Page 114
ISOSTASY......Page 115
EVIDENCE SUPPORTING THE HYPOTHESIS......Page 116
PALEOMAGNETISM, POLAR WANDERING, AND CONTINENTAL DRIFT......Page 117
GESTATION AND BIRTH OF PLATE TECTONIC THEORY......Page 118
DETERMINATION OF PLATE THICKNESS......Page 121
PLATE-DRIVING MECHANISMS AND THE ROLE OF THE MANTLE......Page 122
KNOWLEDGE OF LANDFORMS AND OF LAND-SEA RELATIONS......Page 123
PALEONTOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY......Page 124
WILLIAM SMITH AND FAUNAL SUCCESSION......Page 125
CHARLES LYELL AND UNIFORMITARIANISM......Page 126
GEOLOGIC TIME AND THE AGE OF THE EARTH......Page 127
PERSPECTIVE......Page 130
ABSTRACT ART......Page 135
IMPRESSIONISM......Page 138
EXPRESSIONISM......Page 141
THE VISUAL ARTS......Page 142
LITERATURE AND DRAMA......Page 147
OTHER ARTS......Page 148
THE FIRST PHASE......Page 151
THE SECOND PHASE: ANALYTICAL CUBISM......Page 152
THE THIRD PHASE: SYNTHETIC CUBISM......Page 154
MODERNISM......Page 155
MODERNISM IN LITERATURE......Page 156
MODERNISM IN OTHER ARTS AND ARCHITECTURE......Page 158
HARMONY......Page 159
THE ROOTS OF HARMONY......Page 161
HARMONY BEFORE THE COMMON PRACTICE PERIOD......Page 162
CLASSICAL WESTERN HARMONY......Page 169
MONTAGE......Page 171
THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE......Page 175
DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE HISTORY AND THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE......Page 177
DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE AND THE THEORY OF ART......Page 179
FUNCTIONALISM......Page 182
THE ART OF BUILDING......Page 184
“COMMODITY, FIRMNESS, AND DELIGHT”: THE ULTIMATE SYNTHESIS......Page 187
GREEN ARCHITECTURE......Page 198
THE RISE OF ECO-AWARENESS......Page 199
GREEN DESIGN TAKES ROOT......Page 201
THE PRINCIPLES OF BUILDING GREEN......Page 205
THE CHALLENGES TO ARCHITECTURE......Page 207
URBAN PLANNING......Page 211
THE DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN PLANNING......Page 213
URBAN FORM......Page 221
THE SCOPE OF PLANNING......Page 224
MASS PRODUCTION......Page 235
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENTS......Page 236
PIONEERS OF MASS PRODUCTION METHODS......Page 238
MANUFACTURING PIONEERS......Page 239
THEORIES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT......Page 241
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES......Page 242
PIAGET'S THEORY......Page 244
LEARNING THEORY......Page 245
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY......Page 247
SCREEN MEMORIES......Page 248
THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS......Page 250
FURTHER THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT......Page 252
HUMAN RIGHTS......Page 255
CONSCIENCE......Page 258
SIN......Page 260
SOUL......Page 262
THE PROBLEM......Page 266
THEISTIC RESPONSES......Page 267
JUST WAR......Page 269
NATURAL LAW......Page 273
THEORIES AND OBJECTIVES OF PUNISHMENT......Page 278
PUNISHMENT IN ISLAMIC LAW......Page 284
PUNISHMENT IN ASIAN SOCIETIES......Page 286
UTOPIA......Page 288
MONOTHEISM......Page 293
NEUTRALITY......Page 298
DUE PROCESS......Page 302
HISTORY......Page 304
CONTEMPORARY DEMOCRATIC SYSTEMS......Page 308
EQUAL PROTECTION......Page 311
DEFINITION AND SCOPE......Page 316
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT......Page 319
INTERNATIONAL LAW AND MUNICIPAL LAW......Page 325
SOCIAL CONTRACT......Page 329
ABSOLUTISM......Page 332
THE IDENTIFICATION OF STATE AND PEOPLE......Page 336
CULTURAL NATIONALISM......Page 338
EUROPEAN NATIONALISM......Page 339
ASIAN AND AFRICAN NATIONALISM......Page 344
THE EMERGENCE OF INTELLECTUAL-PROPERTY LAW......Page 353
INTERNET DOMAIN NAMES......Page 355
THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND INTELLECTUAL-PROPERTY LAW......Page 356
ECONOMIC AND ETHICAL ISSUES......Page 357
THEORETICAL DEBATES......Page 358
TRENDS......Page 361
Glossary......Page 366
For Further Reading......Page 369
Index......Page 371


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