دانلود کتاب Introduction to Psychology , Eighth Edition

عنوان فارسی :

دانلود کتاب مقدمه ای بر روانشناسی، هشتم

عنوان انگلیسی :

Introduction to Psychology , Eighth Edition

زبان : English

موضوع : Psychology

نویسندگان : James W. Kalat

ناشر : Wadsworth Publishing

ISBN (شابک) : 0495102881, 9780495102885

تعداد صفحات : 762\762

سال نشر : 2007     ویرایش : 8

حجم : 52 MB       فرمت : pdf

قیمت : 20000 تومان

فهرست :



Table of contents :
Front Cover......Page 1
Title Page......Page 2
Copyright......Page 3
Contents......Page 7
1 What Is Psychology?......Page 30
General Points About Psychology......Page 32
Major Philosophical Issues in Psychology......Page 34
What Psychologists Do......Page 37
Should You Major in Psychology?......Page 43
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 45
The Early Era......Page 47
The Rise of Behaviorism......Page 52
Recent Trends in Psychology......Page 53
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 55
Web/Technology Resources......Page 56
2 Scientific Methods in Psychology......Page 58
Evidence and Theory in Science......Page 60
Steps for Gathering and Evaluating Evidence......Page 61
Replicability......Page 62
Criteria for Evaluating Scientific Hypotheses and Theories......Page 63
In Closing: Scientific Thinking in Psychology......Page 67
Answers to Other Questions in the Module......Page 68
General Principles of Psychological Research......Page 69
Observational Research Designs......Page 73
Experiments......Page 79
Ethical Considerations in Research......Page 82
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 84
Descriptive Statistics......Page 86
Evaluating Results: Inferential Statistics......Page 89
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 90
For Additional Study......Page 91
Web/Technology Resource......Page 92
3 Biological Psychology......Page 94
Measuring Brain Activity......Page 96
The Major Divisions of the Nervous System......Page 98
The Two Hemispheres and Their Connections......Page 103
The Binding Problem......Page 106
Summary......Page 108
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 109
Nervous System Cells......Page 110
The Action Potential......Page 112
Synapses......Page 113
Neurotransmitters and Behavior......Page 116
Experience and Brain Plasticity......Page 117
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 118
Stimulants......Page 119
Depressants......Page 120
Marijuana......Page 121
Hallucinogens......Page 122
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 124
Key Terms......Page 125
For Additional Study......Page 126
4 Sensation and Perception......Page 128
The Detection of Light......Page 130
Color Vision......Page 137
In Closing: Vision as an Active Process......Page 141
Answers to Other Questions in the Module......Page 142
Hearing......Page 143
The Vestibular Sense......Page 146
The Cutaneous Senses......Page 147
The Chemical Senses......Page 151
Summary......Page 154
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 155
Perception of Minimal Stimuli......Page 156
Perception and the Recognition of Patterns......Page 159
Perception of Movement and Depth......Page 166
Optical Illusions......Page 170
In Closing: Making Sense Out of Sensory Information......Page 174
Answers to Other Questions in the Module......Page 175
Key Terms......Page 177
For Additional Study......Page 178
5 Nature, Nurture, and Human Development......Page 180
Genetic Principles......Page 182
How Genes Influence Behavior......Page 186
Evolution and Behavior......Page 188
The Fetus and the Newborn......Page 189
In Closing: Getting Started in Life......Page 190
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 191
Infancy......Page 192
Research Designs for Studying Development......Page 195
Jean Piaget’s View of Cognitive Development......Page 197
Infancy: Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage......Page 199
Early Childhood: Piaget’s Preoperational Stage......Page 201
Later Childhood and Adolescence: Piaget’s Stages of Concrete Operations and Formal Operations......Page 205
How Grown Up Are We?......Page 208
Summary......Page 209
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 210
Erikson’s Description of Human Development......Page 211
Infancy and Childhood......Page 212
Social Development in Childhood and Adolescence......Page 213
Adulthood......Page 216
Old Age......Page 217
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 218
Gender Influences......Page 219
Ethnic and Cultural Influences......Page 221
The Family......Page 222
Summary......Page 226
Key Terms......Page 227
For Additional Study......Page 228
6 Learning......Page 230
MODULE 6.1 Behaviorism......Page 232
The Rise of Behaviorism......Page 233
The Assumptions of Behaviorism......Page 234
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 235
Pavlov and Classical Conditioning......Page 236
Drug Tolerance as an Example of Classical Conditioning......Page 242
Explanations of Classical Conditioning......Page 243
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 245
Thorndike and Operant Conditioning......Page 247
Reinforcement and Punishment......Page 248
Additional Phenomena of Operant Conditioning......Page 252
B. F. Skinner and the Shaping of Responses......Page 254
Applications of Operant Conditioning......Page 257
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 259
Conditioned Taste Aversions......Page 261
Birdsong Learning......Page 263
Social Learning......Page 264
In Closing: Why We Do What We Do......Page 267
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 268
Key Terms......Page 269
For Additional Study......Page 270
7 Memory......Page 272
Ebbinghaus’s Pioneering Studies of Memory......Page 274
Memory for Lists of Items......Page 275
Methods of Testing Memory......Page 277
The Information-Processing View of Memory......Page 279
Working Memory......Page 285
Summary......Page 286
Answers to Other Question in the Module......Page 287
Meaningful Storage and Levels of Processing......Page 288
Encoding Specificity......Page 289
The Timing of Study Sessions......Page 290
The SPAR Method......Page 291
Mnemonic Devices......Page 292
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 294
Answers to Other Questions in the Module......Page 295
Retrieval and Interference......Page 296
Reconstructing Past Events......Page 297
The “Recovered Memory” Versus “False Memory” Controversy......Page 299
Children as Eyewitnesses......Page 303
Summary......Page 304
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 305
Amnesia After Damage to the Hippocampus......Page 306
Amnesia After Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex......Page 307
Infant Amnesia......Page 309
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 310
Key Terms......Page 311
For Additional Study......Page 312
8 Cognition and Language......Page 314
Research in Cognitive Psychology......Page 316
Attention......Page 317
Limitations of Attention......Page 319
Attention-Deficit Disorder......Page 323
Categorization......Page 324
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 327
Answers to Other Questions in the Module......Page 328
Problem Solving......Page 329
Reasoning by Heuristics......Page 333
Other Common Errors in Human Cognition......Page 335
Decision Making......Page 339
Expertise......Page 341
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 343
Answers to Other Questions in the Module......Page 344
MODULE 8.3 Language......Page 345
Nonhuman Precursors to Language......Page 346
Human Specializations for Learning Language......Page 347
Language Development......Page 349
Understanding Language......Page 352
Reading......Page 354
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 358
Key Terms......Page 359
For Additional Study......Page 360
9 Intelligence......Page 362
What Is Intelligence?......Page 364
IQ Tests......Page 368
In Closing: Measuring Something We Don’t Fully Understand......Page 371
Answers to Other Question in the Module......Page 372
Standardization of IQ Tests......Page 373
Evaluation of Tests......Page 375
Are IQ Tests Biased?......Page 378
Individual Differences in IQ Scores......Page 382
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 385
Key Terms......Page 387
For Additional Study......Page 388
10 Consciousness......Page 390
Brain Mechanisms Necessary for Consciousness......Page 392
Consciousness as a Threshold Phenomenon......Page 393
Unconscious Perception......Page 394
Other Phenomena of Consciousness......Page 396
Possible Functions of Consciousness......Page 397
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 399
Our Circadian Rhythms......Page 400
Why We Sleep......Page 404
Stages of Sleep......Page 405
Abnormalities of Sleep......Page 409
The Content of Our Dreams......Page 410
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 414
Ways of Inducing Hypnosis......Page 415
The Uses and Limitations of Hypnosis......Page 416
Meditation as an Altered State of Consciousness......Page 421
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 422
Key Terms......Page 423
For Additional Study......Page 424
11 Motivated Behaviors......Page 426
Views of Motivation......Page 428
Delay of Gratification......Page 431
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 432
The Physiology of Hunger and Satiety......Page 433
Social and Cultural Influences on Eating......Page 436
Eating Too Much or Too Little......Page 437
In Closing: The Complexities of Hunger......Page 441
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 442
What Do People Do, and How Often?......Page 443
Sexual Anatomy and Identity......Page 447
Sexual Orientation......Page 449
Summary......Page 453
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 454
Goals and Deadlines......Page 455
Job Design and Job Satisfaction......Page 458
Summary......Page 460
Key Terms......Page 461
For Additional Study......Page 462
12 Emotional Behaviors, Stress, and Health......Page 464
Measuring Emotions......Page 466
Emotion, Arousal, and Actions......Page 469
The Range of Emotions......Page 472
Usefulness of Emotions......Page 477
Emotional Intelligence......Page 480
In Closing: Research on Emotions......Page 481
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 482
Answers to Other Questions in the Module......Page 483
Fear and Anxiety......Page 484
Anger and Aggressive Behavior......Page 487
Happiness, Joy, and Positive Psychology......Page 489
Other Emotions......Page 492
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 493
Stress......Page 494
How Stress Affects Health......Page 496
Coping with Stress......Page 499
Summary......Page 502
Key Terms......Page 503
For Additional Study......Page 504
13 Social Psychology......Page 506
The Prisoner’s Dilemma and Similar Situations......Page 508
Accepting or Denying Responsibility Toward Others......Page 511
Learning Morality and Cooperation......Page 513
In Closing: Is Cooperative Behavior Logical?......Page 515
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 516
First Impressions......Page 517
Stereotypes and Prejudices......Page 518
Attribution......Page 522
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 526
Attitudes and Behavior......Page 528
Central and Peripheral Routes of Attitude Change and Persuasion......Page 530
Strategies of Persuasion......Page 533
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 536
Establishing Relationships......Page 538
Special Concerns in Selecting a Mate......Page 542
Marriage......Page 543
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 545
Conformity......Page 547
Obedience to Authority......Page 549
Group Decision Making......Page 552
In Closing: Fix the Situation, Not Human Nature......Page 553
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 554
Key Terms......Page 555
For Additional Study......Page 556
14 Personality......Page 558
Sigmund Freud and the Psychodynamic Approach......Page 560
Carl Jung and the Collective Unconscious......Page 566
Alfred Adler and Individual Psychology......Page 567
The Learning Approach......Page 569
Humanistic Psychology......Page 571
In Closing: In Search of Human Nature......Page 572
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 573
Personality Traits and States......Page 574
The Search for Broad Personality Traits......Page 575
The Big Five Model of Personality......Page 576
The Origins of Personality......Page 578
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 582
MODULE 14.3 Personality Assessment......Page 583
An Objective Personality Test: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory......Page 584
Projective Techniques......Page 586
Possible Implicit Personality Tests......Page 588
Personality Tests in Action: Criminal Profiling......Page 590
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 592
Key Terms......Page 593
For Additional Study......Page 594
15 Abnormality, Therapy, and Social Issues......Page 596
Defining Abnormal Behavior......Page 598
Classifying Psychological Disorders......Page 601
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 604
Historical Trends in Psychotherapy......Page 605
Psychoanalysis......Page 606
Behavior Therapy......Page 607
Therapies That Focus on Thoughts and Beliefs......Page 608
Family Systems Therapy......Page 610
Trends in Psychotherapy......Page 612
Comparing Therapies and Therapists......Page 615
In Closing: Trying to Understand Therapy......Page 617
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 618
Deinstitutionalization......Page 619
Involuntary Commitment and Treatment of Potentially Dangerous Patients......Page 620
The Insanity Defense......Page 621
Preventing Mental Illness......Page 622
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 623
Key Terms......Page 625
For Additional Study......Page 626
16 Specific Disorders and Treatments......Page 628
Disorders with Excessive Anxiety......Page 630
Disorders with Exaggerated Avoidance......Page 631
Summary......Page 639
Answers to Other Questions in the Module......Page 640
Substance Dependence (Addiction)......Page 641
Alcoholism......Page 644
Opiate Dependence......Page 647
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 648
Depression......Page 650
Bipolar Disorder......Page 657
In Closing: Mood and Mood Disorders......Page 659
Answers to Concept Checks......Page 660
Symptoms......Page 661
Types and Prevalence......Page 663
Causes......Page 665
Therapies......Page 667
Summary......Page 668
Key Terms......Page 669
For Additional Study......Page 670
EPILOGUE......Page 672
REFERENCES......Page 674
NAME INDEX......Page 730
SUBJECT INDEX/GLOSSARY......Page 746





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