دانلود کتاب A Concise Introduction to Logic (Ninth Edition)

عنوان فارسی :

دانلود کتاب معرفی مختصر در منطق (نسخه نهم)

عنوان انگلیسی :

A Concise Introduction to Logic (Ninth Edition)

زبان : English

موضوع : Other Social Sciences->Philosophy

نویسندگان : Patrick J. Hurley

ناشر : Wadsworth Publishing

ISBN (شابک) : 0534585051, 9780534585051, 0495000248, 9780495000242

تعداد صفحات : 677\677

سال نشر : 2005     ویرایش : 9th

حجم : 4 MB       فرمت : pdf

قیمت : 20000 تومان

فهرست :



Table of contents :
Front Cover ......Page 1
Title Page ......Page 6
Copyright ......Page 7
Dedication ......Page 8
Note to the Instructor......Page 10
Note to the Student......Page 12
Contents......Page 16
1.1 Arguments, Premises, and Conclusions......Page 20
Note on the History of Logic......Page 24
1.2 Recognizing Arguments......Page 33
Simple Noninferential Passages......Page 34
Expository Passages......Page 36
Illustrations......Page 37
Explanations......Page 38
Conditional Statements......Page 39
Summary......Page 42
1.3 Deduction and Induction......Page 50
Deductive Argument Forms......Page 51
Inductive Argument Forms......Page 52
Summary......Page 55
Deductive Arguments......Page 60
Inductive Arguments......Page 63
Summary......Page 67
1.5 Argument Forms: Proving Invalidity......Page 71
Counterexample Method......Page 74
1.6 Extended Arguments......Page 78
Summary......Page 89
2.1 Varieties of Meaning......Page 91
2.2 The Intension and Extension of Terms......Page 101
2.3 Definitions and Their Purposes......Page 105
Stipulative Definitions......Page 106
Precising Definitions......Page 108
Theoretical Definitions......Page 109
Persuasive Definitions......Page 110
Extensional (Denotative) Definitions......Page 113
Intensional (Connotative) Definitions......Page 115
2.5 Criteria for Lexical Definitions......Page 122
Summary......Page 127
3.1 Fallacies in General......Page 129
1. Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum: Appeal to the "Stick")......Page 132
2. Appeal to Pity (Argumentum ad Misericordiam)......Page 133
3. Appeal to the People (Argumentum ad Populum)......Page 134
4. Argument Against the Person (Argumentum ad Hominem)......Page 135
5. Accident......Page 138
6. Straw Man......Page 139
7. Missing the Point (Ignoratio Elenchi)......Page 140
8. Red Herring......Page 141
9. Appeal to Unqualified Authority (Argumentum ad Verecundiam)......Page 147
10. Appeal to Ignorance (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam)......Page 149
11. Hasty Generalization (Converse Accident)......Page 150
12. False Cause......Page 152
13. Slippery Slope......Page 154
14. Weak Analogy......Page 156
3.4 Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity, and Grammatical Analogy......Page 163
15. Begging the Question (Petitio Principii)......Page 164
16. Complex Question......Page 167
17. False Dichotomy......Page 168
18. Suppressed Evidence......Page 169
19. Equivocation......Page 171
20. Amphiboly......Page 172
21. Composition......Page 173
22. Division......Page 175
Detecting Fallacies......Page 186
Avoiding Fallacies......Page 187
Summary......Page 201
4.1 The Components of Categorical Propositions......Page 203
4.2 Quality, Quantity, and Distribution......Page 205
4.3 Venn Diagrams and the Modern Square of Opposition Aristotle and Boole......Page 210
Venn Diagrams......Page 211
The Modern Square of Opposition......Page 214
Testing Immediate Inferences......Page 215
4.4 Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition......Page 218
Conversion......Page 219
Obversion......Page 221
Contraposition......Page 223
4.5 The Traditional Square of Opposition......Page 228
Testing Immediate Inferences......Page 231
4.6 Venn Diagrams and the Traditional Standpoint......Page 238
Proving the Traditional Square of Opposition......Page 239
Testing Immediate Inferences......Page 241
4.7 Translating Ordinary Language Statements into Categorical Form......Page 245
2. Nonstandard Verbs......Page 246
3. Singular Propositions......Page 247
5. Unexpressed Quantifiers......Page 248
7. Conditional Statements......Page 249
8. Exclusive Propositions......Page 250
10. Exceptive Propositions......Page 251
Summary......Page 254
5.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure......Page 256
5.2 Venn Diagrams......Page 263
Boolean Standpoint......Page 265
Aristotelian Standpoint......Page 270
Boolean Standpoint......Page 275
Aristotelian Standpoint......Page 278
Proving the Rules......Page 279
5.4 Reducing the Number of Terms......Page 283
5.5 Ordinary Language Arguments......Page 285
5.6 Enthymemes......Page 288
5.7 Sorites......Page 293
Summary......Page 298
6.1 Symbols and Translation......Page 299
Definitions of the Logical Operators......Page 310
Computing the Truth Value of Longer Propositions......Page 314
Further Comparison with Ordinary Language......Page 315
6.3 Truth Tables for Propositions......Page 321
Classifying Statements......Page 324
Comparing Statements......Page 325
6.4 Truth Tables for Arguments......Page 329
Testing Arguments for Validity......Page 333
Testing Statements for Consistency......Page 336
6.6 Argument Forms and Fallacies......Page 339
Common Argument Forms......Page 340
Refuting Constructive and Destructive Dilemmas......Page 343
Note on Invalid Forms......Page 345
Summary and Application......Page 346
Summary......Page 355
7.1 Rules of Implication I......Page 357
7.2 Rules of Implication II......Page 368
7.3 Rules of Replacement I......Page 377
7.4 Rules of Replacement II......Page 387
7.5 Conditional Proof......Page 398
7.6 Indirect Proof......Page 402
7.7 Proving Logical Truths......Page 407
Summary......Page 409
8.1 Symbols and Translation......Page 411
8.2 Using the Rules of Inference......Page 420
8.3 Change of Quantifier Rule......Page 430
8.4 Conditional and Indirect Proof......Page 434
Counterexample Method......Page 439
Finite Universe Method......Page 440
8.6 Relational Predicates and Overlapping Quantifiers......Page 445
Translating Relational Statements......Page 446
Using the Rules of Inference......Page 449
Simple Identity Statements......Page 456
“All Except”......Page 457
Numerical Statements......Page 458
Definite Descriptions......Page 459
Using the Rules of Inference......Page 460
Summary......Page 468
9.1 Analogy and Legal and Moral Reasoning......Page 470
Legal Reasoning......Page 473
Moral Reasoning......Page 477
9.2 Causality and Mill's Methods......Page 488
Method of Agreement......Page 490
Method of Difference......Page 491
Joint Method of Agreement and Difference......Page 493
Method of Residues......Page 495
Method of Concomitant Variation......Page 496
Mill's Methods and Science......Page 498
9.3 Probability......Page 509
1. Restricted Conjunction Rule......Page 513
2. General Conjunction Rule......Page 514
3. Restricted Disjunction Rule......Page 515
4. General Disjunction Rule......Page 516
5. Negation Rule......Page 517
6. Bayes's Theorem......Page 518
Additional Applications......Page 520
Samples......Page 525
The Meaning of ŤAverageŽ......Page 529
Dispersion......Page 531
Graphs and Pictograms......Page 536
Percentages......Page 538
9.5 Hypothetical/Scientific Reasoning......Page 544
Radium......Page 547
Neptune......Page 548
Atmospheric Pressure......Page 549
Spontaneous Generation......Page 550
The Proof of Hypotheses......Page 553
The Tentative Acceptance of Hypotheses......Page 554
9.6 Science and Superstition......Page 563
Evidentiary Support......Page 564
Objectivity......Page 568
Integrity......Page 573
Summary......Page 577
Selected Readings......Page 578
Summary......Page 588
I Identify-the-Conclusion Questions......Page 590
II Identify-the-Missing-Premise Questions......Page 592
III Strengthen/Weaken Questions......Page 594
Answers......Page 596
Identity Rules......Page 676
Rules of Inference......Page 677
Answers to Selected Exercises......Page 598
Glossary / Index......Page 665





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